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Latihan Soal Sistem Ekskresi SMA Kelas XI

Asrizal Wahdan Wilsa
19 Maret 2014, 05:52 WIB Last Updated 2021-10-01T15:24:55Z

 TRY OUT SYSTEM EKSKRESI KELAS XI

1. An albatross spending its life hovering over the ocean provides an extreme example of _____, the process by which animals control solute concentrations and balance water gain and loss.
A. osmoregulation
B. hydration
C. evaporation
D. osmosis
E. excretion


2. Osmoconformers are animals that _____.
A. expend considerable energy in matching concentrations of their body fluids with those of their marine environment
B. rely on the digestive, respiratory, and excretory systems to remove excess salts and water from their bodies
C. have an internal environment isoosmotic with their external environment
D. spontaneously absorb water through the body surface and lose solutes in urine
E. spontaneously lose water through body surfaces and must actively unload ions and drink water to maintain osmotic homeostasis


3. In a marine environment, animals that are isoosmotic relative to their environment _____.
A. experience no net water loss by osmosis
B. experience significant water gain by osmosis
C. experience significant water loss by osmosis
D. must expend energy on the active transport of solutes from their bodies to the environment
E. can only survive in terrestrial environments


4. Which type of organism would have the least chance of long-term survival in the given environment?
A. osmoconformers in seawater
B. euryhaline animals in fresh water
C. stenohaline animals that move between fresh water and seawater
D. osmoregulators in seawater
E. euryhaline animals in seawater


5. Why do freshwater fish excrete a large amount of very dilute urine?
A. Because they live in a hypoosmotic solution, their cells take up excess water that must be excreted.
B. Because they live in a hypoosmotic solution, their cells tend to accumulate a lot of solute that must be excreted.
C. Because they live in a hyperosmotic solution, their cells take up an excess of water that must be excreted.
D. Because they live in a hyperosmotic solution, their cells tend to accumulate a lot of solute that must be excreted.
E. Because animals must live in an isoosmotic solution, they excrete solutes to make the concentration of solutes in the water equal to the concentration of solutes in their cells.


6. Dehydration in animals _____.
A. is always lethal
B. that are exceptionally small, such as the tardigrade, is not usually fatal because of their large surface area-to-volume ratio
C. is, on a cellular level, the opposite of freezing
D. is a problem because fluid-mosaic cell membranes fall apart when deprived of water
E. may be less damaging in the presence of sugar


7. How do aquatic birds such as the wandering albatross avoid becoming dehydrated even though they live in an environment that is almost entirely salt water?
A. They don't actually swallow the salt water.
B. They excrete excess salt in their urine.
C. They actively transport excess salt from the blood into secretory tubules found in special excretory glands.
D. Like animals that live in extremely arid conditions, they are able to survive for long periods of time without fresh water, only drinking when they have access to fresh water on land or from rainwater.
E. They are able to maintain their osmolarity close to that of seawater by maintaining salt, urea, and trimethyloxide levels in their body fluids, thus preventing the salt water from diffusing into their cells.


8. Most of our nitrogen-containing waste products are a result of _____.
A. drug use
B. consumption of foods high in nitrates, such as green vegetables
C. protein metabolism
D. the body's attempts to maintain pH homeostasis
E. metabolism of fatty foods


9. Most aquatic animals excrete ammonia, whereas land animals excrete urea or uric acid. What is the most likely explanation for this difference?
A. They have different diets.
B. Land animals can get the energy needed to make urea or uric acid.
C. Ammonia is very toxic, and it takes a lot of water to dilute it.
D. Land animals cannot afford the energy needed to make ammonia.
E. Fish need to get rid of ammonia, but land animals need it to live.


Ammonia is very toxic, and it takes a lot of water to dilute it.
In our bodies, the primary nitrogen-containing compound excreted by our kidneys is _____.
A) uric acid
B) amino acids
C) ammonia
D) urea
E) nitrite


The most effective molecule for nitrogenous waste disposal in desert animals would be _____.
A) ammonia because it uses less energy to make than uric acid or urea
B) urea because it is less toxic than uric acid
C) uric acid because it takes less energy to make than urea
D) uric acid because it does not require water for excretion
E) ammonia because it is the most soluble of all the nitrogen-containing metabolic waste products
uric acid because it does not require water for excretion


Many insects, birds, and other reptiles excrete nitrogenous wastes in the form of uric acid, which _____.
A) is synthesized in the kidneys from ammonia and CO2
B) forms solids that are relatively insoluble and nontoxic
C) readily decomposes on exposure to air
D) is readily excreted through feathers and scales
E) can be recycled and utilized as an additional energy source
forms solids that are relatively insoluble and nontoxic
Which of the following is a function of the excretory system?


A) elimination of nitrogenous wastes
B) maintenance of salt balance
C) production of urine
D) maintenance of the water balance
E) All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.
Metanephridia are found in _____ and function in _____.

A) insects ... excretion
B) annelids ... excretion and osmoregulation
C) bats ... osmoregulation
D) earthworms ... excretion
E) birds ... osmoregulation and excretion

annelids ... excretion and osmoregulation
Which excretory system contains structures called flame bulbs that function in filtration?

A) metanephridia
B) protonephridia
C) Malpighian tubules
D) kidneys
E) nephrons
protonephridia
Which of the following is filtered from blood but not normally found in urine?


A) water
B) red blood cells
C) H+
D) amino acids
E) urea

amino acids
The filtrate formed by the nephrons in the kidney is not urine. The filtrate is first refined and concentrated by the processes of _____, which form the urine that leaves the body.

A) filtration and secretion
B) reabsorption and secretion
C) reabsorption and excretion
D) filtration and reabsorption
E) secretion and excretion
reabsorption and secretion
Which of the following is the most accurate and comprehensive description of the function of kidneys?


A) the breakdown of body wastes
B) the excretion of wastes
C) the regulation of body fluid composition
D) filtration of the blood
E) production of urine

the regulation of blood fluid composition
Which of the following is a tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder in a mammal?

A) loop of Henle
B) ureter
C) urethra
D) distal tubule
E) proximal tubule
ureter
The functional units of kidneys are _____.


A) neurons
B) glomeruli
C) ureters
D) nephrons
E) collecting ducts
nephrons
The bed of capillaries in a vertebrate kidney where water, urea, and salts are filtered out of the blood is the _____.


A) Bowman's capsule
B) collecting duct
C) glomerulus
D) loop of Henle
E) proximal convoluted tubule glomerulus

In each nephron of the kidney, the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule _____.

A) filter the blood and capture the filtrate
B) reabsorb water into the blood
C) break down harmful toxins and poisons
D) reabsorb salts and nutrients
E) refine and concentrate the urine for excretion

filter the blood and capture the filtrate

The fluid that enters vertebrate nephrons is called the filtrate. What is the source of the filtrate?

A) blood in capillaries
B) urine
C) lymphatic fluid
D) cells of the kidney
E) the loop of Henle

blood in the capillaries
Which of the following substances is generally filtered from the blood by the kidneys?

A) water
B) sodium
C) urea
D) glucose
E) All of the listed responses are correct

All of the listed responses are correct
Which is an accurate statement about the anatomy of the human excretory system?

A) Bowman's capsule is a network of capillaries inside the glomerulus.
B) The proximal tubule is the portion of the nephron tubule farthest from Bowman's capsule.
C) The renal cortex, which contains the nephrons, is interior to the renal medulla.
D) The loop of Henle is located between the proximal tubule and the distal tubule.
E) The distal tubule of a nephron connects with the renal pelvis of the kidney via the ureter.

The loop of Henle is located between the proximal tubule and the distal tubule.
Which is an accurate pairing of a key excretory function with its definition?

A) Filtration happens when blood pressure forces water, nitrogenous waste, and valuable solutes from the blood into the collecting duct.
B) Reabsorption is the reclamation process that returns valuable solutes and water to the nephron from the capillaries.
C) Secretion transports certain toxins, drugs, and excessive ions from the filtrate to the capillaries.
D) Excretion moves urine, the processed filtrate, out of the kidney, through the ureter, the bladder, and finally out of the body via the urethra.
E) Reabsorption is the process in which toxins, drugs, and excessive ions that remain in the blood after
filtration are transported into the nephron for disposal in the urine.

Excretion moves urine, the processed filtrate, out of the kidney, through the ureter, the bladder, and finally out of the body via the urethra.
All of the following processes occur in the nephron of the kidney except _____.

A) tubular secretion
B) capsular filtration
C) blood cell formation
D) cellular respiration
E) selective reabsorption

blood cell formation
As filtrate passes through the long loop of Henle, salt is removed and concentrated in the interstitial fluid of the kidney medulla. Because of this high salt concentration, the nephron is able to _____.

A) excrete the maximum amount of salt
B) neutralize toxins that might accumulate in the kidney
C) control the pH of the interstitial fluid
D) excrete a large amount of water
E) establish a hyperosmotic interstitial medullary concentration

establish a hyperosmotic interstitial medullary concentration
What is the function of the ascending loop of Henle?

A) It provides water for reabsorption by the interstitial fluid and capillaries.
B) It loses urea to the renal medulla, helping this tissue to maintain its concentration gradient of solutes.
C) It absorbs some drugs and poisons from surrounding capillaries.
D) It helps maintain the concentration gradient of NaCl in the interstitial fluid, thus increasing water reabsorption.
E) It collects processed filtrate from the nephrons.

It helps maintain the concentration gradient of NaCl in the interstitial fluid, thus increasing water reabsorption.
The lowest osmotic potential inside a nephron will be found in _____.

A) Bowman's capsule and the proximal tubule
B) the descending limb of the loop of Henle
C) the loop of Henle
D) the thick segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal tubule
E) the collecting duct

the thick segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal tubule
At a particular position along a nephron, the osmotic potential of the filtrate is 500 mOsm/L whereas the surrounding kidney's is 600 mOsm/L. Which of the following is a likely result?

A) Water will diffuse into the nephron by osmosis.
B) Water will be pumped into the nephron by active transport.
C) Water will diffuse out of the nephron by osmosis.
D) Water will be pumped out of the nephron by active transport.
E) There will be no net movement of water.

Water will diffuse out of the nephron by osmosis.
The loops of Henle in the kidneys of a desert kangaroo rat are much longer than those in a white laboratory rat because the _____.

A) kangaroo rat is adapted to living in an environment where water is scarce
B) white rat's diet is much less varied than the kangaroo rat's diet
C) kangaroo rat cannot always find food
D) kangaroo rat produces more body wastes
E) kangaroo rat has less stress and lower blood pressure

kangaroo rat is adapted to living in an environment where water is scarce
What is the function of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body?

A) During times of increased solute concentrations, ADH causes nephrons to absorb water faster.
B) During times of higher solute concentrations, ADH causes more water to be released from the nephrons to be reabsorbed by the blood.
C) Low levels or the absence of ADH in the blood are the brain's response to thirst.
D) ADH is the only hormone that provides a system of control over the kidney as an osmoregulator for urine production.
E) ADH controls the rate that filtrate moves from the glomerulus into Bowman's capsule.

During times of higher solute concentrations, ADH causes more water to be released from the nephrons to be reabsorbed by the blood.
Secretion of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) from the ______ occurs in response to _____ and causes ______.

A) thyroid gland ... low blood sugar ... kidney blood vessels to constrict
B) pituitary gland ... low blood osmolarity ... decreased permeability to water of a kidney's collecting duct
C) adrenal gland ... high blood osmolarity ... increased permeability to water of a collecting duct
D) pituitary gland ... high blood osmolarity ... increased permeability to water of a collecting duct
E) adrenal gland ... low blood pressure ... increased water and solute reabsorption at the proximal tubule of the kidney

pituitary gland ... high blood osmolarity ... increased permeability to water of a collecting duct
Alcohol consumption increases urinary output because alcohol _____.

A) enhances aldosterone production
B) inhibits aldosterone production
C) causes cellular metabolism to proceed at a faster rate
D) enhances ADH production and release
E) inhibits ADH production and release

inhibits ADH production and release
What conditions are responsible for the stimulation of the JGA (juxtaglomerular apparatus)?

A) an increase in blood pressure or blood volume within the heart
B) an increase in the solute concentration of the blood plasma
C) a decrease in the solute concentration of the blood plasma
D) a decrease in the blood pressure or blood volume in the afferent arteriole
E) consumption of alcohol

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